Loneliness during a Nationwide Lockdown and the Moderating Effect of Extroversion.
Loneliness levels were assessed in a longitudinal, nationwide sample (N total = 6,010) collected over the course of the first 3 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. When in-person social contact restrictions were put in place, loneliness increased significantly compared to prepandemic levels but began to decrease again even before contact restrictions were eased. The loneliness costs were distributed unequally, such that greater increases in loneliness were experienced by women, younger, and extraverted, neurotic, and conscientious individuals. Our findings add to the growing literature on the importance of individual differences in crisis situations.